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IQ, EQ, SQ and PQ - what we've been doing for a long time

Jul 10, 2020

In Leadership Development terms, even before Daniel Goleman in 1996, IQ had already started to give a lot away to EQ. Now SQ is getting more traction. But surely we need PQ too. And to integrate the lot. We've been integrating these explicitly for a long time. Here's a nice article from 2014 from Ricky Kujawa we saw recently - thanks Ricky. Look him up on LinkedIn. It's more personally focussed than a lot of our professional/ROI focus, but great background.

Here's what Ricky posts:

Leadership Intelligences
SQ and PQ intelligences are rarely, if ever, talked about in leadership circles. but two that are include intellectual intelligence (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence (EQ) but evidence is growing that Spiritual Intelligence (SQ) and Physical Intelligence (SQ) are in fact major factors in determining the success of both leaders and organisations alike.

In 1983 Howard Gardner, in his book Frames Of Mind, wrote about seven types of multiple intelligences in human beings. Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that strength or weakness in one area or ability does not necessarily correlate to another intelligence. Gardner did not mention leadership in any of his multiple intelligences. However it is easily recognizable that to be an effective, efficient and productive leader, intelligence is quite naturally required. As such, there is now growing understanding that there are four kinds of intelligence that directly affect one’s leadership capabilities and methodologies to become a successful leadership practitioner.

A holistic approach to leadership requires knowledge, i.e. intelligence, is these areas: Physical (PQ); Intellectual (IQ); Emotional (EQ); and Spiritual (SQ). They are interrelated in that they build on each other as one’s intellectual level increases over time through normal life experiences, academic achievements and professional expertise in our chosen fields. I would argue that the order of importance should be SQ, EQ, IQ and PQ. I might even argue that PQ come before IQ. IQ, I see as the basic foundations rather than the icing on top,

The importance of Physical Intelligence (PQ) to the overall well-being of personal health and fitness. Physical Intelligence relates to Gardner’s bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Furthermore, current studies and findings prove the necessity of maintaining a strong fitness level to improve longevity and body functions. PQ theory says that individuals need be knowledgeable in fitness, nutrition, and bodily wellness.Cindy Wigglesworth, in her book SQ 21, outlines from her research 21 key elements to Spiritual Intelligence (SQ); which she emphatically differentiates from religious and religious beliefs. She believes that SQ is developed over time, with significant practice.

Spiritual Intelligence (SQ)

SQ may be defined as: “The ability to behave with wisdom and compassion, while maintaining inner and outer peace, regardless of the situation.” Wisdom and compassion being the pillars of SQ.

Deeper understanding of one’s own world view, life purpose, value hierarchy and controlling personal ego to consider the higher self.
Self-mastery of one’s spiritual growth, living your purpose, values and vision, sustaining faith in and seeking guidance from a higher power.
Universal awareness of world view of others, limitations and power of human perception, awareness of spiritual laws and transcendental oneness
Social Mastery/Spiritual Presence: wise and effective mentor of spiritual principles; leadership change agent; making wise and compassionate decisions; and being aligned with the ebb and flow of life.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
Daniel Goleman, writing in What Makes A Leader, says that his findings have shown that the most effective leaders all have a high degree of Emotional Intelligence (EQ).

The Center for Creative Leadership (CCL) says EQ is associated with better performance in nine different areas of leadership and management. Goleman’s research clearly shows that EQ is the sine qua non – absolute requirement – of leadership.

Learn principles and practices for improvements in Self-Awareness and Self-Management: self-confidence; self-control; adaptability; initiative.
Becoming more socially: empathetic; service orientation to others and the organization.
Relationship Management: inspirational leadership practices; change management; conflict resolution skills; teamwork building techniques.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Life-long learning is widely regarded as the increase in the intellectual level – IQ – of everyone wishing to improve one’s mind, professional expertise, and position in life. IQ contributes significantly to the personal “wisdom” one attains throughout the maturing process.

Henri Bergson, in his book Creative Evolution reminds us: “To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly.” Continuing education is a never-ending process in raising one’s intellectual level, i.e. IQ.

Life-long learning is widely regarded as the increase in the intellectual level – IQ – of everyone wishing to improve one’s mind, professional expertise, and position in life. IQ contributes significantly to the personal “wisdom” one attains throughout the maturing process.

Enrolling in classes of higher learning, obtaining a second degree, technical expertise improvement classes.
Research intellectual topics such as philosophy, religion, symbolism, leadership, psychology.
Surrounding yourself with people or organizations where life-long learning exists.
This has been regarded as the key building clock in learning over a number of years but the importance of both EQ and at the moment to a lesser extent SQ and PQ have had lower profiles. This is however changing quickly in order to meet changing needs in succeeding generations and their needs and desires.

Physical Intelligence (PQ)
Ability to listen, identify and respond to internal messages about one’s physical self. Pain, hunger, depression, fatigue and frustration are examples.
Learn about and understand the mind body connection. For instance: stomach telling mind it is time to stop eating; understanding the difference between the internal voice of wants vs. needs; the bodies need for exercise when we want to be lethargic.
Determining our body’s perfect weight, fitness level and perfect diet.
David McCuiston wrote on this topic in About Leaders in May 2013.